Sonntag, 17. Januar 2021

Insecure Features in PDFs

In 2019, we published attacks on PDF Signatures and PDF Encryption. During our research and studying the related work, we discovered a lot of blog posts, talks, and papers focusing on malicious PDFs causing some damage. However, there was no systematic analysis of all possible dangerous features supported by PDFs, but only isolated exploits and attack concepts.

We decided to fill this gap and systematize the possibilities to use legitimate PDF features and do bad stuff. We define four attack categories: Denial of Service, Information Disclosure, Data Manipulation, and Code Execution.

Our evaluation reveals 26 of 28 popular PDF processing applications are vulnerable to at least one attack. You can download all malicious PDFs here. You can also find more technical details in our NDSS'21 paper.

This is a joined work of Jens Müller, Dominik Noss, Christian Mainka, Vladislav Mladenov, and Jörg Schwenk.

Montag, 30. November 2020

Single Sign-On Security: Security Analysis of real-life OpenID Connect Implementations

This is a guest blogpost by Lauritz Holtmann. He wrote his master thesis:

"Single Sign-On Security: Security Analysis of real-life OpenID Connect Implementations"

Lauritz summarizes his exciting results in the following. The thesis was supervised by Vladislav Mladenov, Christian Mainka, and Jörg Schwenk. You can read find his full thesis here.

OpenID Connect 1.0 and OAuth 2.0 are the Single Sign-On Protocols that are implemented in modern web applications. In this post, we outline common issue patterns that were discovered in popular OpenID Connect implementations, give concrete examples of vulnerabilities, and give recommendations for adjustments to the OpenID Connect specification.

Dienstag, 21. Juli 2020

Shadow Attacks: Hiding and Replacing Content in Signed PDFs

Last year we presented How to Spoof PDF Signatures. We showed three different attack classes. In cooperation with the CERT-Bund (BSI), we contacted the vendors of affected PDF applications to inform them about the vulnerabilities and to support them in developing countermeasures. Most vendors reacted promptly and closed the reported vulnerabilities promptly.
One of those three attack classes was Incremental Saving Attacks (ISA). The proposed countermeasures aimed to distinguish PDF objects appended to the file via updates into dangerous and non-dangerous. In other words, black and whitelisting approaches were used. 

Naturally, this countermeasure succeeds as long as the PDF update contains evil objects. So we came up with the idea to attack PDFs with only non-dangerous updates. We achieve this by adding invisible, malicious content when creating the PDF document (before it is signed) and to reveal them after signing.
Today, we present Shadow Attacks! Our evaluation of 28 PDF applications reveals that 15 of them, including Adobe Acrobat and Foxit Reader, are vulnerable.
We responsibly disclosed all affected vendors. Together with the CERT-Bund (BSI), we supported the vendors in developing suitable countermeasures. The attacks are documented in CVE-2020-9592 and CVE-2020-9596.
Full results are available in our vulnerability report and on our website.

Montag, 20. Januar 2020

CVE-2020-2655 JSSE Client Authentication Bypass

During our joint research on DTLS state machines, we discovered a really interesting vulnerability (CVE-2020-2655) in the recent versions of Sun JSSE (Java 11, 13). Interestingly, the vulnerability does not only affect DTLS implementations but does also affects the TLS implementation of JSSE in a similar way. The vulnerability allows an attacker to completely bypass client authentication and to authenticate as any user for which it knows the certificate WITHOUT needing to know the private key. If you just want the PoC's, feel free to skip the intro.

Mittwoch, 30. Oktober 2019

CTF: FluxFingers4Future - Evil Corp Solution

For this years CTF I felt like creating a challenge. Since I work a lot with TLS it was only natural for me to create a TLS challenge. I was informed that TLS challenges are quite uncommon but nevertheless I thought it would be nice to spice the competition up with something "unusual". The challenge mostly requires you to know a lot of details on how the TLS record layer and the key derivation works. The challenge was only solved by one team (0ops from China) during the CTF. Good job!

Montag, 30. September 2019

PDFex: Major Security Flaws in PDF Encryption

After investigating the security of PDF signatures, we had a deeper look at PDF encryption. In co­ope­ra­ti­on with our friends from Müns­ter Uni­ver­si­ty of Ap­p­lied Sci­en­ces, we discovered severe weaknesses in the PDF encryption standard which lead to full plaintext exfiltration in an active-attacker scenario.

To guarantee confidentiality, PDF files can be encrypted. This enables the secure transfer and storing of sensitive documents without any further protection mechanisms.
The key management between the sender and recipient may be password based (the recipient must know the password used by the sender, or it must be transferred to them through a secure channel) or public key based (i.e., the sender knows the X.509 certificate of the recipient).
In this research, we analyze the security of encrypted PDF files and show how an attacker can exfiltrate the content without having the corresponding keys.

Mittwoch, 3. Juli 2019

Testing SAML Endpoints for XML Signature Wrapping Vulnerabilities

A lot can go wrong when validating SAML messages. When auditing SAML endpoints, it's important to look out for vulnerabilities in the signature validation logic. XML Signature Wrapping (XSW) against SAML is an attack where manipulated SAML message is submitted in an attempt to make the endpoint validate the signed parts of the message -- which were correctly validated -- while processing a different attacker-generated part of the message as a way to extract the authentication statements. Because the attacker can arbitrarily forge SAML assertions which are accepted as valid by the vulnerable endpoint, the impact can be severe. [1,2,3]

Testing for XSW vulnerabilities in SAML endpoints can be a tedious process, as the auditor needs to not only know the details of the various XSW techniques, but also must handle a multitude of repetitive copy-and-paste tasks and apply the appropriate encoding onto each message. The latest revision of the XSW-Attacker module in our BurpSuite extension EsPReSSo helps to make this testing process easier, and even comes with a semi-automated mode. Read on to learn more about the new release! 

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